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Monday, 10 June 2019


In this group fall the para – aramid fibers based upon poly (paraphenylene terephthalamide) (PPT), notably Kevlar (dupont) and Twaron (Enka) and the polybenzobisthiazole (PBZT) and polybenzobisoxazole (PBZO) fiber which possesses para – linked heterocyclic structures free from amide groups, and therefore fall outside the aramid category. These are all solution spun using an air – gap wet spinning technique from nematic liquid crystalline solutions.

Kevlar is synthesized from the monomers 1,4-phenyl-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) and terephthaloyl chloride. The result is a polymeric aromatic amide (aramid) with alternating benzene rings and amide groups. When they are produced, these polymer strands are aligned randomly. To make Kevlar, they are dissolved and spun, causing the polymer chains to orient in the direction of the fiber.
Kevlar has a high price at least partly because of the difficulties caused by the use of concentrated sulfuric acid in its manufacture. These harsh conditions are needed to keep the highly insoluble polymer in solution during synthesis and spinning.The chemical synthesis of kevlar from 1,4-phenyl-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) and terephthaloyl chloride.

Para – Aramid Fibers Properties
ð  Density                        :           1.45 g/cc
ð  Melting Temperature   :           500°C
ð  Solvent                        :           H2SO4
ð  Tenacity (g/d)              :           Dry :- 8 – 22  ;  Wet :- 7 – 21
ð  Elongation (%)            :           8 – 20
ð  Modulus (g/d)             :           120 – 130
ð  Recovery (%)              :           100
ð  Moisture Uptake (%)  :           3.0 %
ð  At elevated temperatures, the aromatic polyamides have greater mechanical properties.
ð  Kevlar fibe is one of the strongest of man – made fibers.
ð  Dimensional stability of Kevlar is excellent. There is negligible change in length in hot water or in air at temperature as high as 160°C.
ð  Kevlar is susceptible to photo – degradation.
ð  Kevlar is unaffected by most organic solvents but it is attacked by strong acids and bases at high concentration or at high temperatures.

Applications of Para – Aramid Fibers
ð  They are being used in some designs of helicopters and light weight fighter planes.
ð  Its lower creep and excellent creep rupture characteristics are important in the use of aramids as filament wound, pressure vessel reinforcement.
ð  Protective gloves, aprons, vests, helmets, jackets, boots etc. are developed utilizing the cut and penetration resistance of these high performance fibers.
ð  Aramid fibers are providing improved damage tolerance in off – shore power boats, base boats, ocean racing yachts, small sail boats, canoes and kayaks.
ð  In sporting goods aramid fibers are applied such as golf shafts, archery bows, paddles, tennis rackets, fishing rods, track and field equipment.
ð  Aramid fibers are also used to manufacture ropes and cables with high strength and low stretch, such as wire ropes and electromechanical cables.
High strength and modulus of aramid fibers has led to their use in a number of rubber (tires, v – belts, hose etc.), plastic (epoxy, polyester,PVC etc.) and elastomer (neoprene, urethane etc.) reinforcement applications.

Thursday, 25 April 2019

Printing of Polyester by Discharge Style

·         Polyester fabric is dyed with dischargeable disperse dye and then printed with paste containing reducing agent for white discharge and non-dischargeable dyes for colour discharge.
·         Discharge printing of polyester is very difficult, because the dye is dissolves in polyester fabric.
·         If the fabric is dyed with HTHP method, then it is very difficult to discharge the ground.
·         But if the ground shade is obtained by carrier dyeing, then it is easy to discharge ground shade.
·         The cloth is first padded with a dispersion of the dischargeable dye and dried at low temperature so that colour does not get fixed at this stage, also the bath contains 2 g/l sodium alginate made acidic with tartaric acid (pH 5 – 6), then dry the fabric at 60°C and printed with a paste.
For White Discharge
·         The printing paste is prepared as follows:-

     200 parts    Safolin
                               70 parts    Water
                             650 parts    Loust bean gum (10 %) or Meyprogum (8 %)
                               30 parts    Citric acid or (1 – 2 parts Tartaric acid)
                               50 parts    Thiodiethylene Glycol

For Colour Discharge
·         The printing paste is prepared as follows:-

       50 parts    Disperse Dye (non-dischargeable)
     200 parts    Stannous Chloride
                               70 parts    Water
                             600 parts    Loust bean gum (10 %) or Meyprogum (8 %)
                               30 parts    Citric acid or (1 – 2 parts Tartaric acid)
50    parts   Sodium Thoicynate
1000 parts

After printing, fabric is dried and steamed for 30 minutes at 128ºC (30 psi pressure). This system produces full colour yield and bright prints.
After fixation, fabric is rinsed with cold water and hot water, reduction cleared (at 40 – 50ºC for 15minutes) in following bath:-

20 parts           Sodium hydrosulphite
30 parts           Sodium hydroxide
                                            1000 parts
·         Finally, the cloth is rinsed, soaped at the boil, washed and dried.

Wednesday, 23 January 2019

Printing Introduction

    The colour designs are developed on fabrics with dyes and pigments in paste form with specially  
     designed machines, this process is known as “Textile Printing”. Printing is used to apply colour only on localized areas. i.e. Localized Dyeing. Printed fabrics, usually have clear-cut edges in the printed portions on the face of the fabric. 
               Printing allows
§  Flexibility in creating designs
§  Enables the creation of relatively inexpensive patterned fabric.

Stages of Textile Printing
            The printing process does involve several stages in order to prepare the fabric and printing paste, and to fix the impression permanently on the fabric:

     Pre-treatment of fabric:- Grey cloth as woven on a loom is quite unattractive and contains natural and added impurities, which impart undesirable properties to the cloth and which hinder the successful carrying out of the subsequent dyeing, printing, and finishing processes.
So, in order to prepare the grey fabric for printing, various pretreatment has to be done, like – singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching etc.

     Preparation of colours:- Water soluble dyes are dissolve in low amount of water to add in printing paste, while disperse dyes are added in dispersion form.

    Preparation of printing paste:- For Printing, the thickened paste is used for sharp boundaries of colour. This objective is achieved by using suitable thickeners and other ingredients, which are necessary for fixation. 

    Impression of paste on fabric using printing methods:- An impression may be made on a fabric using the printing paste by any of the printing methods, such as block, stencil, roller, screen (flat-bed & rotary)

       Drying of fabric:- After the printed cloth leaves the machine, it is passed through hot air or steam, to dry the cloth. This drying is essential to prevent any spreading of the colour beyond the boundaries of the design.  

     Fixing the printing with steam or hot air (for pigments):- When the cloth is printed and dried, the dye is not actually transferred into the cloth. In order to bring about the transfer of the dye into the fabric as much as possible, steaming is carried out.

    After process treatments:- When the printed cloth leaves the steaming chamber, it contains the exhausted thickener film, along with certain chemicals dispersed in it. Therefore, to remove the thickener as well as chemicals after process treatments is done without affecting dyes.

Fabric Requirements for Printing

            For proper printing the following are the general requirements of fabrics
ð  The fabric should be stitched with proper face on top and uniform width.
ð  Shearing and cropping treatment is given to remove loose threads.
ð  Desizing is necessary, for proper penetration of the print paste.
ð  Singeing removes hairy fibres, to enable even adhesion of printing paste and sharpness.
ð  Scouring gives better dye absorption.
ð  Mercerization is given for cotton fabric and heat setting for synthetics.
ð  Full bleach is suitable for whiter background.
ð  The fabric should be thoroughly dried.
ð  It should be free from creases, and should be free from weft bowing.  

Difference between Textile Dyeing and Textile Printing

Textile Dyeing
Textile Printing
Only mono colour application can be done
Mono or multi-colour application is possible
Uniform colouration along length and width of fabric
Localized dyeing
Dyes are applied in liquid form
Dyes are applied with pastes
Water plays an important role in dyeing
Thickening agent plays an important role in printing
Percentage shade is calculated on the weight of the material
Percentage shade is calculated on the weight of the paste
The fabric is handled either in open width or in rope form
The fabric is handled only in open width form
During dyeing, the fabric may be wet or dry condition
During printing, the fabric is to be kept in dry condition
Colour is applied uniformly on both faces of the fabric
The printed face will be darker, and the other face will be paler
Simple machineries are used, such as tanks, winches, jiggers, soft flow, padding mangles
Machineries are more complex, by way of design, screen preparation, printing machines, after process machineries
Cost of dyeing per meter is lower than the cost of printing
Cost of printing per meter is higher than the cost of dyeing


               Fully automatic screen printing achieved excellent results, but it only associated with intermittent printing process, printers and designers were still looking for a method which would offer continuous printing. This was achieved in mid-1963, when European manufacturers brought out successful units producing continuous screen prints, by utilizing cylindrical engraved rotary screens.

Operations involved in Rotary Screen Printing
   Fabric Feed:-
·         The fabric to be printed must be introduced in the machine in a crease less, faultless and tension less manner.
·         In order to have prolonged printing without stoppages, it should be preferably fed from big batches.
·         The fabric is to be fed over a nip roller, according to the speed of the printing machine.
·         For delicate or warp-knit fabrics, selvedge uncurls are to be provided.
  Fixing the Cloth on endless conveyor Blanket:-
·         Standard two-roller gluing device and a glue holding trough are used for fixing the cloth.
·         Now a days, coating of synthetic adhesive is introduced and used widely, which does not require gluing trough.
·         CMC and PVA are most widely used adhesives for fixing the cloth on blanket.
 Working of Rotary Screen Printing:-
·         The printing effect on the cloth, in the rotary machines, is achieved by causing a proper and adequately pressurized contact between the fabric, which is stuck on the printing conveyor blanket and the cylindrical surface of the electro-deposited nickel screens.
·         This contact can be brought about by:
v  Bringing the revolving rotary screens down onto the endless printing conveyor blanket, or
v  By lifting the printing blanket to meet the rotary screens.
The former system is usually preferred.
·         The contact of the rotary screens and the printing blanket is also effected by two alternate systems:
v  Bringing all the rotary screens down in contact with the printing blanket simultaneously,  or
v  Bringing about this contact in a sequence according to the order of the colours arranged one screen after the other.
·         It is important to ensure that, once all the colours in the pattern are properly set to produce the correct impression of the design.
·         In the system with the individual screen lowering and lifting, it is possible to register the entire pattern without any unnecessary loss of printing paste and printing times in the initial setting of the design will alter.
·         The dyestuff paste is supplied to the interior of revolving screen, distributed in the entire screen body and is pressed on the inner side of the screen, pressed through perforations onto the fabric.
·         It is essential that the running of rotary unit be very smooth.
·         The assembly of machine, along with screens and squeegees, are well supported by frames on both the sides.
·         The height of the printing assembly from the blanket is adjusted with utmost accuracy, which is made to suit the thickness of the fabric being printed.
·         Improper height adjustments may lead to insufficient or excess screen pressure, which results into inaccurate printing.
·         The lower part of the printing unit contains the counter pressure system for the printing point and also the controls for repeat setting.
·         These controls help adjustments of repeat in the longitudinal and diagonal directions.
·         The top part contains the screen tensioning system, the screen driving shaft and the traverse repeat setting system.
Colour Distribution System:-
·         The pumps used for supplying the printing paste should work automatically by making use of accurate sensing instruments.
·         The supply of printing paste is to be arranged in such a manner, that a specific minimum quantity should always remain in the squeegee system.
·         This quantity is maintained by means of the colour probe. The working of probe is based on an electrical contact system or a pneumatic contact system.
·         Further distribution of paste in the squeegee body is achieved through smaller distribution tubes positioning at regular interval to supply equal amount of paste throughout the screen.
·         The colour pump can be run both in forward and reverse direction, to ensure pumping back the colour in case of sudden stoppage of the machine.
 Squeegee Unit:-
·         The squeegee units should to have the necessary sturdy and rigid supports from the sides, where squeegee blades are located.
·         The pressure applied on the squeegee blade is to be uniform from side to side and also in middle.
·         The units should be free of any vibrations and the colour application should be precisely controlled.
·         Squeegee blade pressure systems are:
v  Pressing system making use of the squeegee blades themselves as he pressure generating devices.
v  Pressing system in which independent pressure rollers are used to produce the printing pressure (electromagnetic rollers)
 Drives of Rotary Screens:-
·         In order to cause and maintain perfect synchronization between each screen, screen bearing assemblies are provided, which draw the revolving movement from then main drive of the printing machine.
·         The rotary screens are driven by the rotary screen driving motors.

Repeat adjustment of the Patterns:-
·         The pattern should be produce exactly according to the printing plan chosen, for that rotary screen can be revolved in both the forward and reverse direction.
·         These screen adjustment is possible in three possible directions:
v  In the sidewise, i.e. longitudinal direction
v  In the rotational, i.e. forward or reverse direction
v  In the diagonal direction
Repeat Size:-
·         The most common repeat size internationally recognized is 641 mm. i.e. about 25.25”
·         Other repeats are also favour of some manufacturers like 820 mm (32”) and 1018 mm (40”).
·         An exceptionally larger repeat size is 1395 mm (55”).
Number of colours:-
·         Rotary screen printing machines are suitable for 12, 14 or even 16 coloured designs.
·         Usually, only 5 or 6 coloured patterns are preferred.
 Printing Width:-
·         The most commonly used machine printing width happens to be 1620 mm (63”), although the width of designs may vary from 950 to 1620 mm.
·         Some manufacturers also offered wider width rotary screen printing machines, e.g. 1850 mm (72”), 2400 mm (96”), 2800 mm (110”) or even 320 0mm (126”).
Rotary Screen Printing Speed:-
·         The speed of rotary screen printing machine, available from 4 meters to 100 meters per minute.
·         Printing speed is also depend on various important factor:-
ð  Chemical nature of the fibre (in the substrate)
ð  Twist on yarn and texture of the fabric
ð  Chemical nature of dye (used for printing)
ð  Drying and post printing facilities
ð  Quantity of material to be printed
·         In the case of normal cotton, the speed could be high as 60 meters per minute, while for synthetic, it should be lower as 20-25 meters per minute. For blended material, speed will be governed by the blend percentage, texture etc.
 Cleaning of Printing Conveyor Blanket:-
·         The fabric is stuck on blanket using adhesive at entry side.
·         Blanket is running endless, so the portion of the blanket on which cloth is pasted, returns to the same position after the return passage.
·         During the return passage of the blanket from the delivery end back to the entry end below the printing table, the blanket is thoroughly washed, cleaned and wiped dry.
·         For the purpose of cleaning, a very efficient cleaning system is provided, which is known as the conveyor blanket cleaning unit.
·         The unit is provided with a water-spraying system, along with motorized scrubbing brush rollers.
·         Subsequent wiping offers a very clean and dry blanket surface.
 Colour Paste Pumps:-
·         The paste pumps perform the duty of supplying the printing paste to the colour distribution system of the rotary assembly.
·         The pumps have adequate capacity to supply the dyestuff paste even under conditions of maximum printing coverage, say 100 %.
·         The pumps are reversible and can draw back the printing paste when necessary.
·         The material used for construction of the pump is such that it is not affected by any of the ingredients used while preparing the paste.
Screen Washing Unit:-
·         After completion of printing, screens should be washed and cleaned as early as possible.
·         Cleaning is to be done by means of a good water spray.
·         The cleaning unit should be such a design that water can be sprayed from inside the screen, as well as from outside.
·         The washing unit should be located near the printing plant for minimizing the handling of the screen and to execute the washing operations without any loss of time.
 Drying the Printed Fabric:-
·         Machine is provided with a suitable jet dryer.
·         The jet dryer should have enough drying capacity, so that, even at the maximum machine speed, the printed cloth is well dried during the passage through the dryer.

     Reference:- (Book)
1.      Handbook of Textile Processing Machinery by R.S. Bhagwat
2.      Textile Printing by LWC Miles
3.      Technology of Printing by Dr. V.A. Shenai
4.      Technology of Printing by R.S. Prayag